Chronology of Management Thought (1800 - 2000)
Management Thought Prior to 1800
Sumerians developed the Code of Ur-Nammu (~2100BCE-2050BCE). Earliest legal text that is still in existence.
Egyptians (~3000 BCE - 1500BCE). Egyptian papyri contain writings relevant to management.
Hammurabi developed the Code of Hammurabi (~1792 BCE - 1750 BCE). One of the first written codes of law. It is extensive and still in existence.
Sun Tsu wrote The Art of War (circa 476-221 BCE). His is very early work on strategy for military, government, and business.
Socrates (469 BCE - 399 BCE). Teacher and philosopher on morality, ethics, and government.
Aristotle (384 BCE - 322 BCE). Great teacher and philosopher. Developed formal inductive reasoning.
Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations (121 CE - 180CE). Using Stoic Philosophy, these are his self-reflections designed to guide him.
Luca Pacioli wrote Summa de Arithmetica, Geometrica, Proportioni et Proportionalita (1494). Father of accounting. Codified double-entry bookkeeping, which had begun during the 1300's.
Niccolò Machiavelli wrote Principe (The Prince) (1513). The Prince is a practical guide to getting and keeping political power.
Cameralists (1500 - 1700). German and Austrian pseudo-economist advisers of monarchs.
Sir William Petty wrote Political Arithmetick (1690). Founder of Political Economy.
Adam Smith wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). Father of Classical Economics
Created by David D. Van Fleet with Ella W. Van Fleet using a Timeline Widget and material from multiple sources but particularly Daniel A. Wren and Arthur G. Bedeian, The Evolution of Management Thought, Claude S. George, The History of Management Thought, and a paper by David, "Summarizing Management's Notable Individuals, Works, and Concepts in Chart Form."